Week 5 (Asteria)

Rome and Greece are only a short distance away from each other – undoubtedly, there are many similarities between the two art styles. Rome, being the melting pot, encapsulates many different cultures into one. A lot of the sculptures found in Greece and Rome are composed of marble or bronze. While the art forms/styles, such as marble sculptures, look similar in style, the subjects being depicted are vastly different. Greek art often depicted myths and provided an idealistic figure of the subject, whereas Roman art pieces were more commemorative and based on history.

 

Kouros (left, taken at the British Museum)
Agustus of Prima Porta (right) (Source)

Pictured above is a statue of a male citizen of Greece. Many types of these statues, Kouroi (boy of noble rank) are on display in public spaces. The sculptures are not carved out naturalistically, but rather they are modified to symbolize beauty and excellence. The idealistic sculptures enhance the muscles to portray the ideal human physique.

In Augustus of Prima Porta, the statue carved out still shows muscular features; however, they are not extremely defined. The arms of Augustus show that he has muscle, but the depiction of his arms show that they are not lean – there is not a lot of detail/ridges to show the raw muscles. Although the muscles are not as defined, this statue is still slightly idealized – the youth of Augustus is maintained.

 

panth
Pantheon exterior Source
pan
Source

The architecture between the two cultures are quite similar, but the Roman architecture contains more rounded shapes such as domes and arches. The Parthenon from Greece utilizes the 4:9 ratio. The Pantheon has a similar exterior; however, the whole building contains a dome called the rotunda. Another notable architectural piece from the Romans are the arches, such as the Triumphal Arch and the Arch of Constantine. While the arch contains elements of Greek art, such as the columns, the arch itself is unique to Roman art. The element of arches can also be seen in the Roman aqueducts.

Like Rome, Byzantine art is a mixture of different cultures/regions spanning from the Middle East to North Africa and the Eastern Slavic world. Byzantine art is full of religious expression and often depicts a scene relating to Christianity. The icons and mosaics were displayed on the interior of the churches. The depictions are usually not of this realm. While the artistic styles may reflect that of the Romans, the scenery depicted is often spiritual.

The subjects often look suspended between the view and the wall, with large eyes gazing forward. The background behind the subject is typically gold, which enhances the effect of suspension.

In contrast to the cement/plaster that was used for the mosaics, ivory was also used as a medium for the wealthier people. The small ivory figurines were often used to decorate book covers and reliquary boxes.

The Apse at San Vitale
The Apse at San Vitale Source

The mosaic found in San Vitale is on display on the east side of the church. Right above three window panes, a mosaic can be found. The Apse mosaic of Christ with San Vitale, Bishop Ecclesius, and two angels can be seen at the center of the image above.

A close up of the Apse Source

The appearance of the figures in front of the golden backdrop make it seem like all the figures are floating and looking down. The wide eyes looking down provide a sense of connection between the viewer and the figures in the “different realm”. Christ is seated at the center dressed in a royal purple robe and is in front of a halo with a cross in the middle. The effects of the figures being suspended in air is clearly seen when looking at Christ – he appears to be sitting on the blue sphere, which represents the universe/globe. He seems as if he is sitting on the sphere, however, due to the positioning, it appears that he is only hovering over the sphere. In this mosaic, Jesus is seen handing a crown over to San Vitale, who is the primary martyr. On the right side, Bishop Ecclesius (the founder of the church) is handing over a model of the church.

Naturalism is not a huge priority in Byzantine art. Looking closely at the feet of the angels, Bishop and San Vitale, it does not seem that they are standing. This mosaic lacks naturalism which helps distinguish Byzantine art from Roman art.

Christ Source

The early Christian Byzantine Era can be confused with the later Byzantine era art because they show a lot of similarities. Christ, which is part of the deësis (meaning prayer) mosaic is located at Church of Hagia Sophia. This church was reserved only for the emperor and the imperial family. This mosaic was created during the Later Byzantine period; however, it still holds elements of the Byzantine style. The background is gold, giving the illusion that the three figures are suspended between the wall and the viewer.

 

The subjects depicted are Virgin Mary (left), Jesus Christ (center), and John the Baptist (right). The penetrating gaze forward from Jesus is contrasted with the gazes from Mary and John, which are focused on Christ. It is clear that Jesus is the main subject in this mosaic. Contrary to the mosaics of Justinian and Theodora at San Vitale, there are no black outlines around Christ.

The halo behind Christ is flat and contains a cross, similar to the mosaics of San Vitale.

Sources

Adams, L. S. (2001). A History of Western Art (3rd Edition ed.). New York , New York: McGraw Hill.

Atchison, Bob. “Discovery, History and Conservation – the Christ Deesis Mosaic in Hagia Sophia.” Hagia Sophia

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Byzantine Art.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1 June 2018

Farber, Allen. “Justinian Mosaic, San Vitale.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy

Farber, Allen. “San Vitale and the Justinian Mosaic.” Smarthistory, Smarthistory, 8 Aug. 2015

Hurst, Ellen. “A Beginner’s Guide to Byzantine Art.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy

7 thoughts on “Week 5 (Asteria)”

  1. It is amazing how they were able to artistically place mosaics on a ceiling for dramatic effect. The mosaic you chose really does look like it is floating. It is so fascinating that the artist was trying to depict different realms with its placement. The mosaic is up high and floating while we are down below looking up. I guess this really shows the importance of placement and how it was originally meant to be seen!

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    1. I cannot imagine just looking up at the ceiling and seeing this ginormous mosaic above me. I also really like all the colors. I feel like it would be so overwhelming, but at the same time I would be in complete awe.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. I enjoyed reading your blog post. I also chose to explain the differences between Roman and Greek art. I like how you mentioned how even though they make their sculptures out of the same material, they are different in the why they depict the subject. It is crazy how different they are while looking so similar. I agree that Greek art has more mythical influences while Roman art is more historical. You explained about the difference between their architecture of their Pantheons very well. I like how you talked explained the cultural background of Byzantine art. I love all of the mosaics found in San Vitale. They are so amazing. The one you chose to analyze is one of my favorites. Your analysis was well done. Great job!

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    1. Thanks Jackie!

      It’s so interesting how cultures can be so similar, yet be so different! Personally, I am not particularly fond of the Byzantine art style, however, I still think that the mosaic is amazingly done. Especially when the eastern wing is covered in bright tiles.

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  3. You mentioned how Rome was a melting pot of many cultures, not just of Greek. Based on the eras we’ve learned about so far, do you see any other cultures’ themes in the Roman era?

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    1. While looking at the Roman statues, I noticed that some marble sculptures are of different color. The color of the marble had symbolic meanings, these colored marble were imported from places like North Africa.

      The Romans also used limestone in some of their architecture that was used with the Etruscans.

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  4. Really insightful and well though out blog post. You went really in depth with examining the differences and similarities between Greek and Roman artwork. I am curious what you thought of the statement made in the blog prompt. Which culture (Greek or Roman) do you think had a greater effect on the art of the early Roman period? Did Rome really assimilate Greece, or did Greek culture largely survive?

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