Week 8 ~ Hannah Lingel

The Renaissance time period has always been one that strikes me. The art that was created is some of the most eye-opening, heart-stopping, and thought-provoking I have ever seen. I would have to agree that the Renaissance is one of the crowning achievements in the story of human endeavor at least from an artistic standpoint. I also think that this period has important lessons in what it means to be a well-rounded learner through art, literature, music, language, etc. Every time period has its flaws, but I do think the Renaissance was something special.

Looking at artwork from the Renaissance, it is hard to choose just one piece to analyze. I think what makes Renaissance art so special is its depth and symbolism. Each piece of art has a story behind it that is told not only through the artistic elements, but through the objects that appear in the art. I love Jan van Eyck and all of the symbolism he uses as well as his lines, shading, and color.

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The Virgin of Chancellor Rolinis an oil painting by Van Eyck that currently resides in the Louvre Museum. It is 66 x 62 cm in dimension and was painted in 1435. The painting itself is of the Virgin Mary holding baby with Jesus with Nicholas Rolin kneeling in front of them. An angel is about to place a crown on Mary’s head behind her.

Van Eyck creates dimension by having the landscape in the distance be smaller and blurred compared to the individuals in the painting. He also creates textures all around and in the painting through his use of pattern and designs. Chancellor Rolin is wearing a detailed cloak and the tiles beneath them are patterened with geometric shapes. The painting is supposed to be realistic and naturalistic. This is shown through the thin lines of Mary’s hair creating a softness around it, the wrinkles and lines in the chancellor’s face and neck, and even with the detailed engravings in the pillars holding up the building. Texture is also created through lines and shading in Mary’s cloak. This gives it not only movement, but the feeling of velvet or satin.

The body position of Chancellor Rolin is symbolic. He is dressed in a fur coat that is ornate and decorated, yet he is kneeling before a woman and her child. This shows the status of Mary and Jesus above Nicholas Rolin. Mary is dressed in a large, red cloak and an angel is putting a crown on her head. This alludes to her queenship in heaven as well as her characteristics of royalty and holiness. Van Eyck uses space and position to get his symbolism across. Humanity is at the left of the painting in the form of Chancellor Rolin. Divine and heavenly things are in the right-side of the painting in the angel. Mary and Jesus are in-between these two individuals placing them on the spectrum of humanity and divinity. This painting really is stunning in its use of position, shading, color, and symbolism.

I think we could learn a thing or two when it comes to the Renaissance. I think we are on the verge of a re-birth of some sort and I think it is time to have one. Americans especially are caught up in their own culture and their own education system (when I say “they” I am including myself in that). They are unfamiliar with other cultures therefore they are afraid and often times act out in anger. The education system is also flawed. It seems like a very one-track mind with more and more classes being cut from the public-school system. Art, music, and even PE are being pulled from schools because of funding. I think we could learn from the Renaissance in what it means to be a well-rounded student. I also think they understood the importance of culture and how it should shape and guide us. I am not saying everything in this time period was perfect and glorious, but I do think that in modern-day America, we could use a Renaissance.

 

Art and the Bible. (2018). Jan van Eyck. Retrieved from Art and the Bible Site: https://www.artbible.info/art/large/589.html

Louvre Museum. (2018). The Virgin of Chancellor Rolin. Retrieved from Louvre: https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/virgin-chancellor-rolin

 

Week 7 ~ Hannah

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I have always thought Gothic cathedrals looked ominous and slightly horrific (in the most beautiful sense of course). It was interesting to read that these cathedrals were actually built to emphasize and show the light of Jesus. These cathedrals, with the influence of Suger, were constructed with an art and a science to showcase the light that was coming through their angles. There is unity in how all of the different supports work together to not only make this building stand, but also to look beautiful. The stained-glass windows depict the life of the saints and Jesus with light shining through them. The importance of Jesus as the light brings to this age a sense of hope and holiness. These builders wanted to show the grandeur of God through their architecture. Their windows, supports, and angles are all symbolic of Jesus in the way that they maneuver and showcase light.

I found it fascinating that these cathedrals were not just for church, be they actually helped the economy. My business minded brain was soaking in how the economy would have been improved with the building of these cathedrals. They created numerous jobs as they were not just one-year projects. They were typically built in urban areas which created urbanization, jobs and people moving to cities. These cathedrals not only created jobs, but they also encouraged education. A more education population also allows for a more developed economy. It truly is amazing that these cathedrals were able to create and sustain economic growth.

One of the things I found most interesting about these chapters was the prominence of the Virgin Mary cult. Many of the cathedrals built were in honor or dedicated to Mary the Virgin. I have always been fascinated with cults and sects of Christianity and I wanted to learn more about this cult. I had never really thought of this pagan cult of the Virgin Mary. During the Middle Ages Mary was thought of as the perfect, pure, and sinless mother of God (World History, 2017). There were shrines on the side of the road for people to pray to her and men even held banners with her image during jousting tournaments. Though this cult took worshipping Mary to the extreme, it did raise respect and esteem for women of the time. Women were more respected because of the prominence that Mary had in everyday life (World History, 2017).

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Coming from a non-denominational background, Mary was seen as the mother of Jesus who underwent a miraculous conception. She was never taught as if she was perfect or without sin. She was a woman who raised the savior of the world, but she had her flaws as well. It is interesting to read about a time where she was revered almost as highly as Jesus. She was the Queen of Heaven in their eyes. It makes me wonder about other people in my life, either from the Bible or not, that I place in the same realm as Jesus. It can be easy to want people to be perfect and to worship those that you respect. We can also fall into the trap of our own personal cults without even realizing it.

 

Department of Medieval Art and The Cloisters. “The Cult of the Virgin Mary in the Middle Ages.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/virg/hd_virg.htm (October 2001)

World History. (2017, June 3). The Cult of the Virgin Mary in the Middle Ages. Retrieved from Medieval History: https://worldhistory.us/medieval-history/the-cult-of-the-virgin-mary-in-the-middle-ages.php

Week 6 ~ Hannah

The Lindau Gospels are named after the Abbey of Lindau in Germany where they were once kept and is now part of the collection at the Morgan Library and Museum (Medieval Histories, 2016). This illuminated manuscript is decorated with jewels and gold that were from different eras and places. The back portion of the book is considered the oldest and made in Austria whereas the front cover was created in France around 870-80. Silks and jewels were later added to the manuscript from Byzantine periods and the Middle East adding to the mix of cultures in this piece (Medieval Histories, 2016).

The center of the cover of the Lindau Gospels is dominated by a gold crucifix. Around the crucified Christ are ten mourning images which are Mary the mother of Jesus, John, Mary Magdalene, and others. There is also an image of the new Jerusalem that will be restored because of Christ’s death. The cover has jewels of teal, blue, red, white, and pearl with gold being the main substance used. This manuscript can be viewed in New York with new, enhanced lighting to add to its affect (Medieval Histories, 2016).

The Gero Crucifix is a large wooden crucifix currently residing at the Chapel of the Cross in Cologne. It was donated by Archbishop Gero after he repaired a crack in the head of Jesus because it was already consecrated so only a priest or holy-man could repair it (Lauer, n.d.). This crucifix was made in 970 with additions to it in 1683. This sculpture is 73.6 inches tall which shows it dominance and splendor (The Radical Catholic, 2014). The Gero Crucifix has Jesus hanging on a cross with a large, golden sun behind him. His body and hair are shades of brown whereas the rest of the sculpture is gold.

Christ in the Lindau Gospels is more symbolic rather than realistic as Christ in the Gero Crucifix. The crucifix is till the focal point as it is in the middle and the largest image, but there are other “distractions” surrounding the image so that it is not the only thing viewed. The Gero Crucifix has its focal and only point being Jesus on the cross. Its massive size alludes to the importance of this act. There is a contrast between the natural looking Jesus in earthy browns with the gold sun and cross around him depicting divinity. The style of the Gero Crucifix is more simplistic than that of the Lindau Gospels. Both are ornate in their own sense with gold being a main medium.

What I found most interesting about the Lindau Gospels is that it was a compilation of many different cultures and time periods. You can really see the European influences in the images of Christ and the icons around him. You can also see the influence of the Middle East in the colors and jewels around the border. I found the Gero Crucifix interesting in its massive size and consecration. The sculpture itself is over six feet tall which is incredible. I also found it interesting that only a priest or archbishop could fix the cracks because it was consecrated. This shows the importance of holy objects in the Catholic faith.

I am most drawn to the Lindau Gospels. I think all of the jewels and colors are really eye-catching and draw you towards it. I also think the images around Jesus are captivating because of their body positions. None of the figures really look natural. I am not usually drawn to “gaudy” and detailed work. This piece draws me, though, with its use of jewels, gold, and craftsmanship. I also think it is fascinating that it contains the four Gospels and other important texts. This shows the importance, divinity, and significance of the words that this book carries.

I have thought a little bit about the illuminated manuscript project. I am thinking of doing doing something with the words I have tattooed on my foot. I have the words “yampita, ntambula, nalokoka” which roughly translated means “called, walk, saved”. These words have a lot of significance to my faith journey and I am thinking of doing my project with them. They are from the story of Peter walking out on the water so maybe I will use a boat or waves to help depict them.

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Lauer, R. (n.d.). Kolner Dom. Retrieved July 10, 2018, from Gero Crucifix, circa 970: https://www.koelner-dom.de/rundgang/bedeutendewerke/gero-crucifix-circa-970/info/?L=1

Medieval Histories. (2016, March 2). The Lindau Gospels in Brilliant Light. Retrieved July 10, 2018, from Medieval Histories Site: http://www.medievalhistories.com/the-lindau-gospels-on-show/

The Radical Catholic. (2014, September 12). The Radical Catholic Blog. Retrieved July 10, 2018, from The Gero Crucifix: http://theradicalcatholic.blogspot.com/2014/09/the-gero-crucifix.html

 

Week 5 ~Hannah

During the Byzantine era and when Christianity was still relatively new, images of Jesus and the saints were used for remembrance and to place context into worship. During the 8thand 9thcenturies, iconoclasts destroyed some of these images because they believed it was a form of idol worship. This has influences to today’s Christianity. Today, I would say Christian art is very symbolic with many depictions of Biblical scenes. We rarely have icons in the church and it is even rarer to have icons in your home. If you are a non-denominational Christian, then you may not even have seen an icon let alone use it in your worship. With this time period of the iconoclasts, art in Christian history became less important. I think Christian art is still relevant and important, but I think it lost some of its significance after this period. Those who are not Orthodox or Lutheran may not understand icons. I was fortunate to have an Orthodox on my trip to Israel and Jordan and I loved hearing about her beliefs and the importance of icons in her own life. They do not believe that those icons should be worship, rather, they believe that they are a symbol of the saints or Jesus and is a way that they can sense the presence of them. Being around her really shifted my perspective on Christian art and its importance.

The resolution in 843 AD allowed for the creation and use of images and icons. I think there is a sense of freedom in this decision that they were able to draw, paint, etc. whatever they chose to. Just like in America we have freedom of speech, they received freedom of art and worship. I think this is important to art-making today. Almost every religion has an artistic outlet and I think it is important to see the beauty in an art that may not be about something we believe in. We have the freedom to create, and that is the beauty of art.

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I love the Christian Byzantine era and its art. I was fortunate to see many mosaics and icons from this era as I was traveling in Israel and Jordan. The piece that caught my attention was an icon of Peter. Saint Peterwas found on Mount Sinai in Egypt in the Church of Saint Catherine’s monastery. It was painted in the 6thor 7thc. and resides in the monastery when it is not being show at different museums. This icon was painted with beeswax mixed with different dyes to get its color. It is 36.6 in x 20.9 in and depicts Saint Peter in the middle holding a staff shaped like a cross. Above him are three people who are smaller than the size of Peter’s head. They are St. Menas, Jesus, and Mary. Each figure has a halo around them depicting them as holy.

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The artist of this painting uses a blend of 2D and 3D to depict St. Peter. Peter himself is 3D but the halo around him is flat. There is an added depth to the image because of the buildings and their shape. The contrast between these two dimensions brings the focus to the halo around Peter’s face. This is really emphasizing his importance and holiness. The artist also uses white to clothe Peter. This could mean purity and innocence. The colors around Peter are blues, red, and browns. All of the colors around him are muted so that he stands out from them. The halos of all of the figures are yellow to show emphasis.

The artist uses every inch of space that is on the panel. Peter takes up ¾ of the panel with his shoulders going from one side to the other. The artist also uses the space at the top to show important saints and Jesus above Peter. There is also movement in the way that Peter’s garb is wrapped with the use of lines and shading. This adds texture in his clothes. There is also texture in his beard and hair. The use of straight and circular lines adds a feeling of texture to his hair.

It is hard to tell because of the wear of the icon, but the images above Peter seem less realistic and naturalistic than Peter himself. Peter was painted naturalistically with a creased forehead and realistic eyes. His hair looks very real with the texture and color as well as the colors of his skin. This painting depicts an important figure in Christian history and I think it is quite stunning to look at. Peter has always been one of my favorite Bible characters because of his tenacity, yet fear and acceptance of his humanity.

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Saint Peter, Church of Saint Catherine’s monastery, Mount Sinai, Egypt, 6th or 7th Century.

MonasteryIcons. (2008, May 21). WordPress. Retrieved from The Icons of the Monastery of St. Catherine of Sinai: https://monasteryicons.wordpress.com/2008/05/21/the-icons-of-the-monastery-of-st-catherine-of-sinai/

 

Week 4: Hannah

My favorite Greek period for art would have to be the Classical period. This is a span from 450-323 B.C. and said to be the “golden age” of Greek art (p.95). This period also has heavy influence on Western culture. What separates this art from the Archaic period is its turn towards naturalism. Sculptures of men became more realistic with more movement and definition in the muscles. There was also a shift form marble to bronze for large sculptures. The Athenian Acropolis which contains the Parthenon was also built during this period. What captured me most in this period were the sculptures and specifically the “wet drapery”. Looking at Nike Adjusting Her Sandal really captured my attention with how much movement and definition her cloth had. It is incredible that they were able to make something so hard (marble) look so soft and light. The Classical period really was defined by organic, natural objects and views of humanity.

Nike Adjusting her Sandal High

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From the MET’s timeline I was able to find this sculpture of a family in marble. This stele was created in 360 B.C. and was made to depict the deceased for memory. All four of the figures look very life-like and even have curly, defined hair. I was also able to find a terracotta figure of a women although all that is left is her tunic. The flow and drapery are evident in this sculpture.

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The Parthenon, Stonehenge, ziggurats, and the Pyramids all symbolize and show the spirituality of the people who built them. The Pyramids and ziggurats were built to honor the deceased because the builders and that culture talked about an afterlife. The Parthenon was built as a temple for the goddess Athena. All of these amazing works of architecture were built to show respect to some figure as well as to express and honor their spirituality. All of them were built with such care and precision to depict the importance of why they were created. The Parthenon was so precise that lines that appear horizontal, are actually curving because of the way the human eye views straight lines. It was also created with ornate, detailed columns that depict various Greek gods and stories in history. These structures were made to last and to show their respect. Over time, fewer structures were built. This could be because of a lack of spirituality or a lack of resources and time.

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In America, our spiritual needs are a little different than that of Ancient Greece. I think America is a lot more secular and does not put as much of a priority on spirituality. Instead, we honor and respect our leaders rather than our gods. We depict our leaders on the money that we use and build monuments to the ones we think were the greatest such as the Abraham Lincoln Monument. When we do show our spiritually, we tend to do so in a less prominent, permanent, tangible way. We are less apt to build monuments and structures for anyone because we believe in an afterlife or a god. We do build churches and have grave stones, though. It is interesting how much the spiritual world was a part of the everyday life of the Ancient cultures. So quickly this has changed.

 

Week 3 (Hannah)

I chose to do my artwork analysis of a painting found in The Book of the Dead of Hunefer from the 19thDynasty (1295-1186 BC). This painting is of the Opening of the Mouth ceremony in ancient Egypt and is found in the British Museum in London, England (Adams, 2011, p.63). The Opening of the Mouth ceremony was the ritual where Egyptians would “open the mouth” of the deceased mummy so that they were able to breath, speak, understand, etc. (p.62). This ritual is depicted on papyrus painted with ground plants such as lapis lazuli, malachite, and orpiment.

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This depiction is of a scribe’s deceased body going through the ceremony. There are three priests to the left of the painting that are leading the process. Hunched over and below the scribe’s mummified body are two women. Behind the body and holding it up is Anubis, the jackal-headed god of embalmers. Next to them is a stele depicting the scribe, Hunefer, going before a god as well as a depiction of a pyramid/tomb. There is a break below this painting where there seems to be a lower section with two servants leading two cows. They are headed in the direction of what appears to be a table with ceremonial items for embalming.

The artist of this painting uses mostly long, thin lines to create the bodies of the scribe, priests, god, and women. Hunefer’s mummified body is almost at a perfect vertical alignment creating the most central part of the painting. All other faces and bodies are turned towards him, showing that he is the focal point and creating emphasis. The artist uses simple lines when creating the bodies, but also uses curved lines when decorating them. For example, the leopard skin that is draped over one of the priest is drawn using curved lines to show some amount of movement. Overall, the artist uses lines to create pronounced angles that create shapes of triangles and rectangles.

The color of this painting is also interesting. The priests are painted with a darker red color whereas the women are a light shade of orange. Hunefer and Anubis are painted with a color in-between that of the priests and the women. They are also the only ones to have other colors on them. Hunefer’s body is decorated with blue around his head and Anubis has blue on his head and green around his waist. This shows the class distinctions and honor that these two are receiving over the priests and the women. The table that is holding the ceremonial materials is also painted with green. This is probably to signify the holiness in preparing the body and the spiritual act that is taking place by Anubis and the priests.

Spatially, we can also see the difference in status and class. The women are bowing below the scribe and their bodies are more curved than the priests’. The bodies of the priests are more regal and stiff where Anubis’ body is the most rigid. In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the more rigid and stiff the depiction of the body, the higher the status. This is shown in this painting. Proportionally, the women are smaller than the men to show their lower status. They are not only physically lower, but lower in the hierarchy as well. They are also seen in the painting as covering their faces from Hunefer’s body. The priests and women have their bodies in a side-view with their profiles being seen. This is different than Anubis who has his bottom half in side-view, his torso facing straight, and his face in a side profile. This was common practice in Ancient Egypt.

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There is some motion and action shown in this painting. Movement itself is stopped because of the hard, straight lines, but the action of the ceremony is shown through the priests holding various tools and instruments. The women show the most movement because of the curved lines forming their arms and torsos. This adds to their emotion as they are mourning for the loss of Hunefer.

The simplistic decoration of the priests and women show their lower class and draw attention away from them. They are dressed in white with smooth textures and little pattern. The priest on the far left is more ornate with a leopard skin that is heavily patterned to depict texture. Anubis and the scribe have more pattern and texture to show that they are what the viewer should be looking at. Diagonal lines create hatching on Anubis’ cloth and rectangles and cross-hatching create texture on Hunefer.

I think this painting is really beautiful in how it depicts a piece of Ancient Egyptian culture. The use of color to emphasize the spiritual importance of this ceremony is interesting and fascinating. Typically, colors were used for royalty because they were expensive. I think that this is shown in the use of color in this painting. Overall, the alignment of the bodies and the use of texture creates the importance of hierarchy and structure in the Egyptian culture. The artist was trying to convey this ancient ritual through their use of lines, color, texture, and position. I think it is fascinating to understand these ancient cultures through their artwork because for many of them, art is all that we have.

From the chapters we read and the lecture, I found the Amarna Period very interesting. Amenhotep was a pharaoh who shifted the whole culture of Egypt. He worshiped the Aten and wanted to change Egypt into a monotheistic culture. As this happened, the artwork of Egypt changed as well. They became more naturalistic in their sculptures and paintings through depicting people with rounder stomachs, egg-shaped heads, and more movement in their bodies. What I found the most fascinating about this period was how it changed back to the Old Kingdom after Amenhotep had died. Amenhotep shifted a nation’s culture and art, but it did not last as long as he had hoped. I think this shows how hard it is to shift and change a culture.

 

Adams, L. S. (2011). A History of Western Art (5th Edition ed.). New York , New York: McGraw Hill.

 

Week 2 (Hannah)

One way cultures differentiate from each other is through their view on life and death and how those two interact (if they interact). This relationship can be seen in the different artifacts and art pieces that the Sumerians placed in royal tombs. One of the things they placed in these burial sites were lyre sound boxes that were decorated with gold and jewels. The ornate beauty of this lyre shows that the Sumerians respected and loved music. It would have taken time and craftsmanship to create this piece, so the fact that it is in a royal cemetery speaks volumes to the importance of prestige and leadership. Sumerian leaders were buried with the beautiful things that they loved. Maybe they even thought that those things would be taken with them into their heaven. This shows that things do not just have a useful purpose, but also a spiritual purpose to some extent. I think the relationship between life and death was very important to the Sumerian people. If death did not have some significance, there would be no need to be buried with decorated sculptures, lyres, and jewelry.

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(The British Museum, 2017)  Source

I think it is hard to process and think about death and life as so intimately connected like the Sumerians or Egyptians thought. From a Western perspective, some believe you die and that is the end. From a Christian perspective, we believe that there is an afterlife, either heaven or hell, but you cannot take any of your earthly possessions with you. In these ancient times, death was almost glorified especially if you were royalty. It is hard to not bring my Western perspective into the picture when reading and looking at these artifacts. It is interesting that life and death and their interaction look different not only between cultures, but between individuals.

What stood out to me most as I was reading were the Jericho Skulls. I actually had the opportunity to see one of these skulls when I visited the Jordan Archeological Museum in Amman, Jordan. I didn’t really realize what I was seeing when I was looking at it, so it was fun to do some extra research on these sculptures. These skulls were found in the old city of Jericho which is in the modern-day West Bank. They are from the Neolithic period where people would put plaster on human skulls and place shells for eyes to restore and preserve these skulls (Romey, 2017). Most likely these skulls were preserved for ancestral worship. These skulls were spread out to many different museums and one landed at the British Museum. Once there, they used a 3-D printer to create an image of what they man would have looked like (Romey, 2017). It is crazy that we have the technology to do that.

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(Romey, 2017) Source

Something that I found interesting was how these people would try to make these skulls as life-like as possible. They used shells for eyes and even painted on hair and facial hair (Holloway, 2014). There were also skulls made for a variety of people. Women, children, and men are all represented in the Jericho Skulls (German, 2018). It is still argued what the exact reason for plastering these skulls was, but we can tell that there was significance in remembering the dead in some way.

(First picture is from my trip), (Holloway, 2014) Source, (Romey, 2017) Source

 

Bibliography:

German, S. (2018). Khan Academy . Retrieved from Jericho: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/01/jericho-skull-neolithic-facial-reconstruction-archaeology-british-museum/

Holloway, A. (2014, January 18). Ancient Origins. Retrieved from The plastered skulls of Jericho: http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/plastered-skulls-jericho-001232

Romey, K. (2017, January 5). National Geographic. Retrieved from Face of 9,500-Year-Old Man Revealed for First Time: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/01/jericho-skull-neolithic-facial-reconstruction-archaeology-british-museum/

 

Week 1: Values, Methodologies, and Analysis (Hannah)

As I was reading about the different values of art, the one that resonated with me most was the religious value of art. I recently got back from a trip to Israel and Jordan and almost all of the art there has some sort of religious meaning. There are thousands of years old mosaics that depict creation and temple architecture built for Roman and Greek gods. One thing that stood out to me the most was the Basilica of Annunciation and all of the different portrayals of Mary. All along the outside walls are pictures of Mary from different cultures. Religion and faith give value to art. I had never really thought about this before.

I thought all of the methodologies of approaching art were very interesting. I saw a lot of Iconology approaches when I was in Israel. The method I found most interesting was psychoanalysis. It is quite amazing that we can analyze art to understand humanity better. I think people use many different ways to express themselves, and if art is one of those ways, then of course it would be telling us something.

Lucas Cranach the Elder: Crucifixion

Lucas Cranach, Crucifixion Chapter 18 p. 331

The painting that I chose to analyze is Lucas Cranach’s, Crucifixion. Cranach is depicting the crucifixion of Jesus among the two other thieves. He uses lines and planes that are vertical to depict height and I believe Jesus’ eventual ascension. This also gives the view of looking from above. Cranach uses movement by the wind shifting Jesus’ cloth and the clouds. The clouds above Jesus are dark and use hues of black. This symbolizes Jesus’ fateful death. Overall, the hues are dark, but there are lighter colors around the bodies of the crucified men and around John’s red cloak. There is a lot of texture in this painting from the ominous clouds to the green trees. The shapes and lines contrast with each other from the hard lines of the crosses with the soft circles of the clouds and cloths. Overall, this painting depicts Jesus’ death and humanity.

Oli Otya? (How are you?)

Hello fellow Art History friends!

My name is Hannah Lingel and I am going into my senior year at Fox with a major in Business Management and a double minor in International Studies and Global Business. My dream and my goal are to work in international non-profit, specifically in Uganda. I have been to Uganda on three separate occasions and I even lived there for three months. This place has completely captured my heart and God has made it fairly clear that he wants me to move there. So that is the plan after graduation! My title is a phrase of welcome in Luganda, the language spoken in Uganda. They do not have one word for “hello”, rather, they ask “how are you?” instead.

I have a large passion for traveling and besides Uganda I have been to Italy, Mexico, Israel, Jordan, and all over the United States. Experiencing new cultures and hearing others’ stories is what allows me to thrive and understand Jesus in new and exciting ways. I love the discomfort and flexibility that comes along with traveling.

Besides traveling, I love to read and challenge my mind to understand hard concepts or things that are different than my own thinking. I also love being outside especially if I am on a beach. I am from Hood River, Oregon so the beauty of nature is vastly captivating. We spent many summers on our boat on the Columbia River and many winters with multiple feet of snow. God’s power and splendor through the four seasons is evident where I come from. I also have two brothers, one younger and one older. Being the only girl has made me into a kind of tomboy. I love all things sports, especially when it comes to basketball. Having brothers has given me immense patience, but also a spirit of adventure.

Here are a few pictures of some of my travels! These are from Uganda, Israel, and Jordan.